Seismic surveys looking for oil and gas deposits are interfering with cetacean communication, likely stressing the marine mammals
Noise from ship traffic has long been recognized as a disturbance for whales, but the high-decibel explosive impulses produced during seismic surveys are an emerging, even more formidable, threat that’s begun to receive attention from marine mammologists in the past few decades.
To carry out a seismic survey, ships tow along several airgun arrays that typically fire off every 10–20 seconds, over periods of days, weeks, or months, albeit not continuously.The “source level,” or loudness, of airgun arrays can exceed 240 decibels (dB) (in water).For reference, a blue whale, one of the world’s loudest animals, can produce calls at a volume of over 180 dB. If the source level of a sound increases by 10 dB, it means that it gets 10 times more intense. So, the sound of seismic airguns is about a million times more intense than a blue whale call—powerful enough to deafen the largest animal in the world if it happens to be near an active seismic vessel.
While airguns can damage whales’ hearing if they’re fired within a kilometer or so of an animal, they can also be disturbingly loud at great distances. In fact, the sound waves can propagate halfway across the globe. The blasts can travel so far not only because they start out so loud, but also because they’re low-frequency (i.e., low-pitch) sounds. Low-frequency sounds attenuate much more slowly than high-frequency sounds, like bird chirps, which travel only short distances. This means that seismic surveys can potentially have a range of behavioral impacts on whales located dozens of kilometers away from airgun arrays.
The low-frequency blasts emitted during surveys overlap with the bandwidth of calls produced by baleen whales, which rely critically on sound for communication.So, in addition to disturbing whales, seismic surveys can “mask” their calls to each other, as scientists say. This explains why bowhead whales in the Alaskan Beaufort Sea stopped calling to each other: it was futile to try to make themselves heard over the high-decibel explosive sounds. This phenomenon has also been documented in blue whales.
The effect of seismic surveys on North Atlantic right whales, a critically endangered species, has yet to be studied, but there is now a dire need to do so. In 2018, the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration authorized an expansion of offshore drilling using seismic airgun blasting in the coastal waters of the eastern United States, the right whales’ primary habitat. Geological permits must be approved by the Bureau of Ocean Energy Management before surveys can be conducted, but the proposed seismic operations could disrupt the behavioral patterns (e.g., migration, breeding, and feeding) of marine mammals, including right whales, hundreds of thousands of times each year.
The North Atlantic right whale population’s recovery from 19th-century whaling is already seriously impaired by mortalities from ship collisions and fishing gear entanglements,and the impending seismic surveys in their habitat could present a less visible but pervasive disturbance. Right whales use social calls to mediate vital interactions, including mating, so a reduction in time or space for acoustic communication could have drastic implications for the species’ survival and reproduction.
While increases in low-frequency ocean noise are a potential anthropogenic stressor for all baleen whales, depleted populations experiencing the cumulative effect of multiple stressors are at heightened risk. The behavioral impacts of airgun blasts on endangered species like right whales must be carefully studied using controlled exposure experiments prior to starting actual seismic surveys in their habitat.
ABOUT THE AUTHOR(S)
Taylor L. Machette
Taylor L. Machette is a senior at Princeton University majoring in Ecology and Evolutionary Biology and earning a certificate in Environmental Studies. She’s an aspiring marine mammologist, and she’s done research projects on species ranging from bottlenose dolphins to blue whales. After Princeton, she plans to enter a Ph.D. program to study how anthropogenic noise affects baleen whale acoustic communication. She can be reached at email@example.com.